Cross Flow turbines manufactured by Orengine are a modern version of the Banki turbine. The Cross Flow turbine was invented by an Australian engineer (AGM Michell) and patented by him in 1903. Hungarian Professor Donat Banki later refined the design.
The standard models manufactured by Orengine have the following characteristics:
Flow Range 20 L/s to 12,000 L/s
Head range 10m to 150m
The maximum power does not normally exceed 2,000 kW.
Over a range of flows the average efficiency is 80%. However, at the design flow and head, the maximum efficiency may be as high as 85%.
These turbines can be manufactured with a vertical or horizontal inlet. However, the shaft is always horizontal.
A wide rectangular water jet is used. The water enters the runner radially, it then passes through the runner and strikes the blades again on exit (hence, the term "Cross Flow"). Angular momentum is imparted to the runner on both passes. Due to the cross flow pattern of flow, potential obstructions such as leaves, ice, small stones etc. are flushed out by the water (assisted by centrifugal force), thus making the runner self cleaning.
In situations where a wide flow variation is expected, the machine can be built with two compartments. The compartments are sized in the ratio of 1:2. The split compartments, in combination with control of the guide vanes, allows the flow capacity to be varied from 15% to 100% whilst still retaining optimum efficiency and reliability.
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